It's About The Hashbangs

Before I get started here’s the disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this rant are my own personal opinions on web development and do not represent the views of my employer, its engineering organisation or any other employees.

A few months back there was a flurry of blog posts and conversations over Twitter both for and against the now fairly common practice of using hashbang urls (example) and JavaScript routing in favor of traditional URLs and full page loads. There is also growing interest around several JavaScript MVC frameworks that are make heavy use of this technique. Since people started doing this kind of thing I’ve been pretty squeamish about the idea. At the time that this discussion erupted across the web I really wanted to comment on it but until recently, although I was almost certain that hashbang URLs were destructive, I found myself unable to put in definite terms why.

As you probably know if you’ve been reading this blog for a while, I have for a long time been an avid proponent of progressive enhancement and as many people correctly pointed out many of the arguments against hashbang URLs seemed to fold this philosophy in which clouded the issue quite a lot. In a well reasoned post, my colleague, Ben Cherry pointed this out and expressed that it wasn’t really hashbangs that were the problem and that they were merely a temporary work around until we get pushState support. As he put it, “It’s Not About The Hashbang”.

After quite a lot of thought and some attention to some of the issues that surround web apps that use hashbang URLs I’ve come to conclusion that it most definitely is about the hashbangs. This technique, on its own, is destructive to the web. The implementation is inappropriate, even as a temporary measure or as a downgrade experience.

Let me explain.

URLs are important. The reason the web is so powerful is that it is a web of information. Any piece of content can reference any other piece of content directly. Our information is no longer siloed into various disconnected libraries, now all our data is linked together. The web is much better at doing this than as a platform for delivering applications but yeah, that’s a whole other blog post. The means by which one piece of data is linked with another piece of data is via a URL. That makes the URL possibly the most important part of the web. If you are working on a web app I assume you value its content. If you value the content that a web app holds then you need to value it’s URLs even more. Directly addressable content is what makes web apps better than desktop apps. It’s certainly not the UIs.

URLs are forever. The web has a pretty long memory. Techniques and technology may change but content published to the web gets indexed, archived and otherwise preserved as do the URLs that they link to. There’s no such thing as a temporary fix when it comes to URLs. If you introduce a change to your URL scheme you are stuck with it for the forseeable future. You may internally change your links to fit your new URL scheme but you have no control over the rest of the web that links to your content.

Cool URLs don’t change. For this and other reasons, Tim Berners-Lee wrote a classic article, Cool URLs don’t change in which he explains how to make future proof URLs and why that is important. If you change your URLs you sever links with from the rest of the web. You’ve just turned your web app into a data silo. Your content has just become a lot less useful. However, as much as we try it’s pretty impossible not to introduce change from time to time, sometimes data does need to be deleted, sometimes you need to move to a new domain name, sometimes you just need to reorganise.

Luckily, HTTP gives us the tools to handle this gracefully. If content is deleted we can tell the web it’s no longer there with a 410 (thanks Nick!), if it’s moved to a different place on the web we can tell the world its new location with a 301 or a 302. HTTP gives us the ability to manage change. Further to that, it’s years old, fairly well specified and most importantly understood by not just browsers but all devices that can access the web including search engines and other spiders.

Going under the radar. So, you’ve implemented hashbang URLs. This means that the part of the URL after the #, the identifies the specific content, is not even sent in the HTTP request. It’s completely invisible to your server. As far as your server is concerned it’s receiving requests for the root document and sending it with a 200 success code no matter what. It no longer has the ability to determine if the URL has moved to a different location or even if the content being requested exists at all. This entire job is left up to some JavaScript that happens to be running on that page. Sure, your javascript can examine the hash portion of the URL, show the relevant content or if it’s missing show a ‘Content not found’ message. It can even redirect to different locations internal and external to the web app.

The important difference is that this is entirely opaque to anything that hasn’t got a JavaScript runtime and a document object model. Spiders and search indexers can and do sometimes implement JavaScript runtimes. However, even in this case there’s no well recognised way to say ‘this is a redirect’ or ‘this content is not found’ in a way that non-humans will understand. You’ve just rendered your content invisible to everything apart from people running certain browsers. The hashbang itself is an attempt to address this by Google but it’s quite a painful thing to implement and why get yourself into a situation where you are creating a fix for something you just broke. Just don’t break it in the first place.

Once you hashbang, you can’t go back. This is probably the stickiest issue. Ben’s post put forward the point that when pushState is more widely adopted then we can leave hashbangs behind and return to traditional URLs. Well, fact is, you can’t. Earlier I stated that URLs are forever, they get indexed and archived and generally kept around. To add to that, cool URLs don’t change. We don’t want to disconnect ourselves from all the valuable links to our content. If you’ve implemented hashbang URLs at any point then want to change them without breaking links the only way you can do it is by running some JavaScript on the root document of your domain. Forever. It’s in no way temporary, you are stuck with it.

It’s not all doom and gloom. For the web apps that have made the jump already it’s too late but I urge you to think really hard about making the jump to hashbang URLs when creating new content or considering a switch from traditional URLs. There is a path forward in the not too distant future. pushState is coming to browsers at quite a rate and, as Kyle Neath said to me in a bar last week, is probably the most important innovation in web development since Firebug. You can implement, as Github have done, pushState for browsers that support it but by all means fall back to traditional URLs rather than hashbang URLs. Even if some users are getting hashbang URLs they will be publishing content linking to them, tweeting them and bookmarking them and you’ll be stuck with supporting them all the same.

Can we all agree to let it go the way of flash intros, please?

58 Comments (Closed)

Well said. One minor nitpick (don’t I always?) – if a resource is deleted, I would say that the correct response is 410 Gone rather than 404 Not Found.

Here’s to 410ing hashbangs.

Nick FitzsimonsNick Fitzsimons at 28.05.11 / 23PM

You might be interested to read:

David DoranDavid Doran at 29.05.11 / 01AM

Excellent, concise write-up on why we shouldn’t be using it.

Adam PrescottAdam Prescott at 29.05.11 / 02AM

There’s exactly one place hashbangs belong in Javascript.

#!/usr/bin/env node


Aria StewartAria Stewart at 29.05.11 / 02AM

David: I really like they way that article explains the issues. Its a different side of things to what I cover here as well. Thanks for pointing that out.

Aria: Ha, now you’re talking :)

Dan WebbDan Webb at 29.05.11 / 02AM

The hard part is that support for history.pushState in Internet Explorer does not appear to be forthcoming. That makes the argument that browsers are quickly adopting that feature pretty dubious since IE accounts for a good 50% of traffic at least for most non-geek sites.

Mike DillonMike Dillon at 29.05.11 / 02AM

Up until now I really hadn’t given this issue much thought, but I think these are very valid arguments. It goes against a lot of the principles that we web developers hold dear. Most importantly the semantic, open, connectivity of the web. Great post.

Scott GaleScott Gale at 29.05.11 / 02AM

Mike: Yep, you’re right. I was being a bit optimistic there. Either way though, are page refreshes that bad?

Dan WebbDan Webb at 29.05.11 / 02AM

Nice article on why they are bad, I though am thinking of using hashbangs for pagination though as blog/topic/page/1 and blog/topic/page/2 etc can appear as duplicate content and google panda doesn’t like that so maybe in this and some online shops I make would hashbangs be better or just a robots no index on any page that is a pagination of another page? What does everyone think? On a blog posts don’t really get deleted but in a shop one day u may have 5 pages of laptops and next week u only have 4 so I don’t want any pages after the 1st indexing? What do people think about this?

matthew fedakmatthew fedak at 29.05.11 / 09AM

Really enjoyed this article. Had been researching benefits draw backs of hashbang urls. Wont be implementing now

Maleck13Maleck13 at 29.05.11 / 09AM

I largely agree with you, and have long thought that twitter’s use of hashbangs is ill considered. I wasn’t convinced by the twitter engineer’s justifications- Making into a “web app” is solving a problem nobody had.

I will add- particularly in relation to the above post from Matthew Fedak, that there are situations where I would consider the use of “Hashbang” , or properly named “Fragment identifier” legitimate. So long as all the information that could be referred to by the fragment, is contained in the HTML retrieved by requesting the url WITHOUT the fragment. it’s okay, and that’s what it was originally meant to do: refer to parts within the resource. The problem with twitter is treating the whole site as if it could be contained in a single downloadable page.

Breton SlivkaBreton Slivka at 29.05.11 / 09AM

I disagree entirely.

Without containing state in the fragment, maintaining history is impossible using AJAX. Google Maps would no longer allow users to go forward, back or to send links to friends.

Search engines shouldn’t even see hash bang urls, in theory, as the links on a page in the anchor tags should point to real urls.

e.g.: <a href="/user/mark">Mark's Profile</a> which is then remapped in Javascript to a link to #!/user/mark. As such this site will be fully indexable by a search engine.

If a user shares such a link on twitter, a search engine might visit it. In which case the application can state a base url by which it should be referred.

I prefer the state we are in at the moment to the one you seem to suggest should be the case

Richard WhitehouseRichard Whitehouse at 29.05.11 / 09AM

Note that the creator of backbone doesnt like inapprioriate faux server side urls. He added it because everybode tried to integrate sammy into backbone.js.

On the other hand. When building complex js apps you might have loads of states that you don’t want to expose as urls but some that you do want to.

AndreasAndreas at 29.05.11 / 10AM

Sorry, but I also disagree with you. history.pushState is not coming as fast as you think. As someone has allready pointed out IE won’t support this feature in the short-term.

So as Ben Cherry said in his brilliant article, it’s a necessary bridge until we have pushState/popState implemented in every browser.

JoséJosé at 29.05.11 / 12PM

I respect GitHub for their usage of pushState. As far as whether or not hashbangs are appropriate, I think it simply depends on the situation.

I ended up using hashbangs and some home-brewed ajax to keep the state on my experimental (and very beta) blog at . For a low traffic blog, I can live with the way I’ve set it up. Especially because with JS disabled, the site reverts to normal WordPress navigation. Would I use hashbangs for a client who needed their content to be indexed and linked to without any confusion? No probably not.

Hashbangs certainly make me uneasy. Just like any site depends JavaScript. Depending on a technology, however, is acceptable if you know your audience and your purpose, and are willing to exclude whomever that may not entail.

Mason StewartMason Stewart at 29.05.11 / 12PM

Breton/Andreas: I delibrately kept away from the cases you outline here so as not to muddy the point but yes, Im with you there, using a fragment identifier to mark a certain state in an Ajax driven application is often a good idea but only if that state is a transient state in the application and not if it represents an actual entity on the web that should have the ability to be referenced directly.

José: Erm, did you read my post all the way down? What I just explained at length is exactly why this thinking is destructive.

Dan WebbDan Webb at 29.05.11 / 15PM

Nice post! I couldn’t agree more! Thanks for highlighting such an important point and doing it so eloquently. :)

Aseem KishoreAseem Kishore at 29.05.11 / 16PM

Boy, can anyone figure out a way to hack JQuery-mobile to not use hashbangs?

My app that I’ve been playing around with JQuery-mobile on (not yet in production) is perfectly well behaved in other respects. If the user doesn’t have javascript at all, they still get a reasonable experience (with nice looking persistent URIs without hashbangs).

But JQuery-Mobile is a really well-architected solution to cleanly integrating on top of this a mobile web app that looks/behaves nearly as good as a native app on iOS and Android (and some others)... except for the hash bangs.

Jonathan RochkindJonathan Rochkind at 29.05.11 / 16PM

This is an argument among technorati, nothing more. It’s entertaining to be sure, but it has nothing to do with mainstream concerns.

Web. Users. Don’t. Care.

They search, they click, they look, they move on. Very few users bookmark web sites, and even fewer care about that silly address we all seem to hold so dear. It’s just a bar code to them.

As long as the content keeps coming up in Google they are satisfied. When it suddenly stops they assume “something happened” and they move along and never look back.

Your hashbang is a placeholder for having a real issue to tackle.

Patrick CorcoranPatrick Corcoran at 30.05.11 / 04AM

“Web. Users. Don’t. Care.”

What’s your point? Does everything we do have to be about what users care about? If they don’t care, does that really imply that it’s unimportant? I think they do care when things break, and even if they don’t, the person who lost customers/viewers because of that breakage probably cares, and doesn’t feel that their website being broken, or losing business, or looking unprofessional is unimportant.

Breton SlivkaBreton Slivka at 30.05.11 / 05AM

Thank you for a nice comment, although I beg to differ in some cases, for example in our platform all of our urls point to index.php and in a special param we handle sections and page loads, for example index.php?do=/blog/ index.php?do=/photo/ In this case our framework is able to return 404 or any other header required. So at least in this specific topic I believe there’s an oversight. I also think that “urls are forever” but in addition I also trust in proper redirections to nudge the user/crawler in the right direction.

All the best!

Miguel EspinozaMiguel Espinoza at 30.05.11 / 14PM

Good info regarding why we SHOULD NOT be using it:)

Harvey MillerHarvey Miller at 30.05.11 / 16PM

Thanks, Dan. Great post. I can’t agree with this enough.

@Jonathan Rochkind: I appreciate your comments about jQuery Mobile, but I wanted to respond to your point about its hash usage, as I think it’s quite a different situation than the hashbang-as-first-citizen approach that Twitter takes. In Twitter, the source contains JS-dependent hrefs from the start (href=”/#!scottjehl”). As a contrast, jQuery Mobile relies on hrefs with traditional (real) URLs , but when those links are clicked, jQM fetches pages via Ajax and updates the hash to maintain a functional deep link to that resource that was fetchd. Of course, that resulting URL is just as JS-dependent as a hashbang would be, but the site itself is not JS-dependent from a crawler, old browser, feature-phone, etc perspective.

I feel this is a better approach than absolute reliance on hashbang, but it still doesn’t feel entirely right. We’re currently in the process of implementing pushState across all jQuery Mobile navigation as the default, and as pushState support improves, we may drop support for hash urls entirely (the github model).

Scott JehlScott Jehl at 30.05.11 / 16PM

This is all fine and good, except web pages and their URLs became obsolete in 1992 when the first cgi executed.

The builk of the web is no longer page based, its at least a feed and often a lot more. This idea that singleton keys (i.e. a url) can be used to pair all web content to indexes is no longer possible. The #! is hack to get by, but in then end we’ll need some kind of search agent mechanism that scales broadly.

Google and the other search engines have long given up on indexing the web. They only need to index enough to make their advertising models work. We are long past the point where Urls have any utility.

Donovan KlieggDonovan Kliegg at 31.05.11 / 07AM

Never bothered about these hashbang URLs until I read this. Good food for thought.

Tradutor PortuguesTradutor Portugues at 31.05.11 / 11AM

Imagine yourself having to reload a page. There are two options: Click the “go GET it, browser” and the refresh button (which rePOSTs data). With a hashtag the first method is broken.

Bjorn RoesbekeBjorn Roesbeke at 31.05.11 / 13PM

Agreed that in most cases you don’t want to be using hashbangs. However,there are a few applications where there’s no alternative.

Consider a music-centered website (e.g. Hype Machine) where you want a music player on the page. Every new page load will stop the music, which is not what you expect as an end user. The only solution is to load all content with Ajax and use hashbangs to keep state and make things bookmarkable.

HayHay at 31.05.11 / 15PM

Dan: Love the attention to detail (“it’s“ to “it-is” instead of to “its”) in the URI of this article.

Justin ReeseJustin Reese at 31.05.11 / 16PM

The URL is the document’s unique name. Users do care about it, because they want to share the document. Users have essentially had to make their own sharable links with and so on because devs have abused the URL so much. The URL is part of the UI. Abusing it with bar code like data and then saying users don’t use it anyway is the height of cynicism. They do use it when it is not broken. I have been making short, readable, useable URLs since before the URL-shortening craze, but it amazes me how many were not even shamed by URL-shorteners into getting their act together.

CGI is irrelevant. URL design is at a whole other level than server scripting. Whether you use Python or Ruby or whatever, you can name your resources with unique locators. A list of links on your site should still be human readable. There is no reason Three Blind Mice should be anywhere other than so users can get at it however they choose.

The problem with hash bangs is it is nerds showing off in the f’ing address bar again. YAWN. Get the f out of there you nerds. Start making better apps to impress users, not “better” URLs to impress other nerds. No tech in the URL. NONE. That is the name of the resource only.

HamranhansenhansenHamranhansenhansen at 31.05.11 / 18PM

For hosting documents, I agree with this rant. Hiding a document behind a #! url is poor, for all the reasons listed.

But document delivery is becoming increasingly irrelevant to the web. It’s all about apps now; apps with client-side behavior and state. I think the #fragment portion of the URL is exactly the place to put client-side parameters. Things are no longer as simple as document#subsection, but by re-purposing the url to represent app#clientstate, we can preserve most of the benefits.

A particular url of app#clientstate is still a unique identifier, and can still be universal and valid for long periods of time. The fact that the client needs to do some work to render the “content,” rather than the server doing all the work and returning a convenient code, seems to reflect the reality of the situation pretty well. Clients keep getting smarter. Rather than fight the #!, embrace it as a way to keep client state visible as part of the URL rather than hidden in other mechanisms (cookies, etc.).

WillWill at 31.05.11 / 19PM

The same effect can be created by using well crafted URL rewrite rules, without using characters that make requirements of your design.

! is seriously shortsighted design.

Mark TophamMark Topham at 31.05.11 / 21PM

you may be interested to know that Wikipedia does not have any entry explaining what a hashbang url is… it has a shebang entry, but that’s just the traditional top of a unix text file thing.

perhaps you might enlighten us all, and leave an historical placeholder?

MarkMark at 31.05.11 / 22PM

Incidentally 307 is also a redirect, 301’s complement and a better-specified analogue to 302. Whereas 302 can be destructive when dealing with methods other than GET, 307 is unambiguous: if the request with not a GET or HEAD, no automatic redirection should be done.

J. KingJ. King at 31.05.11 / 23PM

The problem with hashbangs is that everyone expects a URI to be a URL, and hashbang URIs aren’t:

Adam FieldsAdam Fields at 01.06.11 / 01AM

What basis are you using to define a web app? I would agree with these points if it were targeted towards a website that serves up content for the public (.e.g. gizmodo). However, if you’re building a web application whose content can only be accessed by registered users then I would have to say hashbangs would serve perfectly well.

I would be interested to hear your view on this as well.

Thanks, Kevin

KevinKevin at 01.06.11 / 01AM

Two things:
  • your points on content referencing are excellent.
  • to use and old cliche, don’t throw out the baby with the bathwater. I’d be interested in a followup with places that hash bangs make sense. Like inside a process (think step 2 & 3 of a 4 step wizard, survey, etc) in which you never want someone to link to that page/section directly.

Thanks for the insight and perspective.

MelBugaiMelBugai at 01.06.11 / 01AM

The issue I have with this post is it presents no generally viable alternate solution. Right now, and in the forseeable future, the choices are A) use hashbangs to preserve client state, or B) degrade the experience for the users in IE.

Github is one of very few special cases that has an audience that allows it to reasonably choose B. For almost everyone else that lives in a world where upwards of 50% are on IE, that simply is not a reasonable option. IE does not support pushState/replaceState, and doesn’t plan to anytime soon.

If I think a feature improves user experience, I am going to figure out a way to deliver it to as many people as possible. For client-side state changing features, the only real way to do this in the forseeable future is by using hashbangs. We all agree they’re ugly, but they’re simply the lesser of two evils.

LAWLAW at 01.06.11 / 07AM

Kevin just hit the nail. Is it no problem with using hashbang URL:s or other strange stuff inside a proper web application, since you don’t want external links to individual views in a web app anyway.

So we need to distinguish between web sites (a collection of fairly static documents containing useful information) and web apps (with dynamic behaviour).

The problem is when people carelessly uses web app technologies (AJAX etc.) on what should really be web sites.

Mikael StåldalMikael Ståldal at 01.06.11 / 14PM

As recognized by others, differentiating between app state and resources is key to designing a web app with good urls.

But if the data following the hash bang is only used for application state and does not represent a resource, then why not use a simple hash? My understanding is that the bang is a hack to make the URL indexable.

Kyle Harr Kyle Harr at 01.06.11 / 17PM

A while ago I had an idea that I just kinda let fizzle out… but with widespread adoption, it would be quite worthwhile.

Expanding on the idea of Trackbacks: When a user hits a 301, the 301 error page should be able to ping the referrer with the dead URL and the new URL as well as redirecting the user. The referrer would also have to implement a script to update the links.

I don’t know too much about the Trackback protocol, so I don’t know if it’s quite the appropriate place for this… but I think the concept matches enough for the association.

Jon PetersonJon Peterson at 01.06.11 / 18PM

Web. Users. Don’t. Care.

We care when it breaks.

I’m not a developer. The first I ever heard of Hashbangs was when links to specific Gawker articles started redirecting me to the Gawker frontpage every time they were sent to me by people in the United States.

Turns out it was a combo of being redirected to their UK site (so they could serve me relevant ads) and the hashbangs they’d just introduced.

I’m still not sure I completely understand hashbangs, but my experience of them as an end user has been 100% annoying.

LouiseLouise at 02.06.11 / 08AM

Another annoyance – the “back” button doesn’t work, certainly not in iOS.

I hit a link from a site to a Twitter post. I read the post. I then have to hit “Back” three times before I’m back to the referring site.

I hate that.

John NobleJohn Noble at 02.06.11 / 14PM

Excellent post. URLs are forever. We can’t excuse anything by saying hashbangs are a temporary crutch since we’ll have to support them in perpetuity anyway.

An even bigger problem with the same consequences is the common use of separate domains or paths for mobile friendly representations of the same resource. is pretty bad. is worse.

JordanJordan at 02.06.11 / 14PM

The back button does work, try it again! :)

KläderKläder at 02.06.11 / 21PM


AA at 04.06.11 / 12PM

install the Twitter Tools plugin to sync up your activities across both channels. With features like automatical tweeting

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